Damp clay required a writing implement that would leave a clear mark, but not crumble the surface, so early scribes used a reed with one squared-off end to press triangular marks and short straight lines into the clay.
Curves were too difficult to execute clearly, so early writing like Sumerian cuneiform was all based on those triangles and lines. Writing developed very early in Asia, too by B. The first Chinese writing was painted with a brush or inscribed with a knife on wood, bamboo and even flat animal bone.
Inscribed writing was often filled in with ink afterwards, to make it more visible. In Southeast Asia and India, the most common writing surface was palm leaves, which were in widespread use by the seventh century A. To write on these leaves, scribes used a stylus quite similar to the ones by the Romans see below. It was bronze, with a sharp point on one end for inscribing the letters and a flat blade on the other end for scraping the surface of the leaf smooth.
As with Chinese writing, the inscribed letters would be filled with ink after writing, to make it more legible. For many centuries, Roman scribes used wooden tablets filled with wax for taking temporary notes, and even though writing technology had vastly improved in other ways see the sections below for some examples , the Romans were faced with the same difficulties with curves as the Sumerians had.
The Roman alphabet, also used extensively for inscriptions in stone, was made entirely of straight lines. To write in the wax, Roman scribes used a stylus that was long and thin like a pen, but had a point on one end for writing, and a broad, flat area on the other end for erasing by smoothing the wax out. The ancient Egyptians invented a writing surface called papyrus sometime in the third millennium B.
It was made from layers of thin sections of reeds, and made such a practical surface that it was adopted all over the Mediterranean world, including Greece and Rome.
The best tool for writing on papyrus — which is much like a very textured paper and even gave paper its name — was a reed pen. These pens were lengths of reed cut to a point on one end and slit to facilitate the movement of ink.
They had to be repeatedly dipped in ink, but this worked well enough that very similar pens made from different materials were used right up into the 20th century, and are even used by some artists and calligraphers today.
In the East, where paper was available early on, a brush was used for writing. Because these brushes were thick but tapered to a fine point, ancient Chinese writing is composed of sweeping strokes with both thick and thin lines, and the art of calligraphy was highly regarded. Papyrus was used in Europe, too, but there was such a demand for writing materials that the supply of papyrus reeds began to run out, so another material was sought.
Animal skin, prepared in just the right way, was found to be a durable surface that could even be scraped clean of ink and re-used if necessary. This was called parchment or vellum. It was actually in use, though not popular, as early as the third century B. Medieval scribes used a metal-tipped bone stylus or a thin piece of lead called a "plummet" an ancestor of the pencil to mark out faint guidelines, then wrote using various types of pens, including reed pens, and pens cut from the flight feathers of large birds, called quill pens.
As metalworking became more refined, pen nibs were made of metal. Early metal nibs were durable and did not have to be sharpened like a quill pen did — though they still had to be dipped in ink every few letters — but they did corrode from the acids in early inks, and they were stiff and sometimes difficult to write with.
Then we gamble and record the data. Unfortunately, when any real money online casino in the USA is sold to a new company this entire process must be repeated. Finding out when a website is sold and who bought it is the real problem. That is where our friends in the industry come into play. This way we can suggest reputable companies we know are on the up and up, not rebranded unsavory casinos which could go rogue and potentially not payout ever. Some sites allow gambling with bonus codes at table games as well.
They will specifically say that it will work on table games, otherwise do no expect bonuses to transfer from slots to tables. Rewards are given as prizes, comps, and bonus play. As stated above, the bonuses still allow players to gain comps making them even more valuable to regular returning customers. It is surprising how quickly comp points can add up! Sometimes they exceed the players first deposits in the matter of weeks. Comps are one of the few things in an online casino that is truly a win-win for everyone.
Not all states are allowed to sign up. For instance, professional sports betting is illegal, yet playing slot machines or a card game like blackjack is not. Another popular real money game in the USA that is regulated differently is real money Bingo because it is skill based and has been grandfathered in before anti-gaming laws were in place. These Bingo sites frequently have casino-like games and scratch cards as well. There are big advantages to gambling online as opposed to live games at land-based casinos.
Craps, Blackjack, and Roulette can be played at a much faster pace online allowing for more bets in a shorter time. That is an important concept to understand.
For instance, if you are hitting consistently on red, you could take advantage of your lucky streak with extra fast bets on even numbers and on red as well. Then, just slow down your betting when your luck turns. For this reason and because they tend to have good odds, many die-hard table game players play online exclusively. Seasoned players know that video poker has very good odds, so playing several hands at once is preferable.
The more hands played the more that can be won, and nothing compares to the rate one can play cards online. Some professional gamblers play multi-hand video poker as their sole source of income. Slot machines at these websites payback more per bet than offline slot machines do.
As much as double the amount of money is returned to the gambler compared to tight Vegas slots on the strip. The fact that slot machines spin faster online offsets this gain slightly, but it also increase total playing time. Some people think brand new is always better. While this is not always true, new is at least fresh and different. Gamblers that need a reliable and unbiased reference point before moving forward into unknown territory need not look further.
Knowing more about a new site before depositing money will help increase your fun factor and your bank account in the end. Some people over spend or over bet on new sites. Offer only the best! So that is exactly what we do! After all, it has a crazy history in the USA that continues today. Relaxing on the couch with your phone or sitting at your desk on the computer is better for a lot of people who do not want to go out.
Clean, convenient, and safe from all mass shootings, USA online casino gambling is such a great alternative that one day it may exceed land based gambling. This is not a far fetched idea. It is already a 67 billion dollar industry. With so many people betting, and with Mobile Casino Party expert advice in mind, you are sure to find the right play to play.
A section of mobile phone only sites have now been added and are able to be accessed on a variety of smartphones and tablets including Android, iPad, Blackberry, and iPhones.
Realtime gaming is a good example. These guys make new games once a month, sometimes twice, which is a lot more than land-based casinos can pump out. Frankly the software is less than what most hardcore gamblers would expect.
Because of this the majority of American residents still play at offshore websites. This brings fear of tax evasion and the possibility of laundering money from American officials, yet not one arrest has ever been made on a state level.
If regulation becomes federal law than it is very likely these large companies will step in and take over all real money casino game manufacturing. Please do not be mislead elsewhere! Even the state-run websites in NJ are not allowed to offer their games as a certified app. One day it may be the same in the US but as of now there is really no sign of change coming soon.
This is not enforced as strongly as some would like, but the legal age of gambling corresponds with the licensing country.
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